Ore deposits, and in particular the larger ones, represent the foci of large-scale systems of mass and energy flux. In subduction zones, a number of lines of evidence point to a causal link between oxidized slab-derived fluids, oxidized sub-arc mantle, and the formation of economic concentrations of metals such as Cu, Mo, Fe and Au in specific arc segments during limited periods of time.

Our aim is to determine whether giant Andean deposits have a unique mode of formation, or they represent the extreme end of a spectrum of deposit sizes, formed by an optimum convergence of common geological processes. We combine geological, structural, geophysical and geochemical to constrain specific factors, such as distinct tectonic configurations, reactive host rocks or focused fluid flow that have helped enhance the overall mineralization process.